我国民间借贷民事法律规制研究

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摘 要
民间借贷自古以来就是一种非常重要的融资方式,近年来,随着市场经济的快速发展,民间借贷行为的发生也更加频繁。民间借贷的快速发展充分说明了其对调动社会闲置资金、弥补正规金融行业的?#27605;?#20197;及推动私营?#34892;?#20225;业的发展具有重要的作用。但是我国现行民事法律对民间借贷行为的调整还存在很多不足之处,以至于民间借贷在社会实践当中很容易引起争议和纠纷,不能充分发挥其积极作用。本文从民间借贷合同入手,在阐述民间借贷相关理论的基础上,对我国民间借贷民事法律规制中存在的不足进行分析、归纳和论证,重点对我国民间借贷民事法律规制的完善问题进行探讨和研究。全文分为以下五个部分:
第一部分是对民间借贷基本问题的分析。主要分析了民间借贷的含义、民间借贷的类型、民间借贷与非法集资以及高利贷的区别、民间借贷的影响。
第二部分是对民间借贷进行的理论分析。主要阐述了民间借贷法律关系产生的原因和民间借贷法律关系的构成要素。该部分从理论角度对民间借贷法律关系进行了较为详细的阐述和分析。
第三部分是对我国民间借贷民事法律规制存在的不足的分析。这一部?#31181;?#35201;对《合同法》、《民法通则》、《物权法》、《担保法》和民间借贷相关司法解释中有关民间借贷的法律规定进行了较为详细的分析,并归纳总结了我国现有民间借贷民事法律规制中所存在的问题。
第四部分是对其它国家和地区民间民事借贷法律的现状分析。这一部?#31181;?#35201;介绍了英国、美国、南非、香港地区、台湾地区关于民间借贷民事法律规制的状况,并且根据这些国家和地区关于民间借贷法律规制的优秀法律制度,分别归纳出英国、美国、南非、香港地区、台湾地区民间借贷民事法律规制对于我国的启示。
第五部分是对完善我国民间借贷民事法律规制问题的分析和论证,这也是本文的核心部分。该部分是在综合上述四部分研究成果基础之上,提出了完善我国民间借贷民事法律规制的具体建议。该部分在借鉴英国、南非、美国、香港地区、台湾地区成功的立法经验对我国启示的基础之上,分别从《合同法》、《民法通则》、《物权法》、《担保法》和民间借贷相关司法解释这几个方面,对我国民间借贷主体、民间借贷借款用途、民间借贷合法形式、民间借贷合同效力、民间借贷利?#23454;?#37325;要问题提出了具体的
完善建议。此外,还根据国外和其他地区的启示,对我国民间借贷的监管问题提出了一些建议。

关键词:借贷; 合同; 民间借贷; 民事法律规制


Abstract
Private lending is a very important way of financing since the ancient times. In recent years, with the rapid development of market economy, private lending has not disappeared. In verse, along with the rapid development of private enterprise and their ascending demand for money, development of private lending activities has become increasingly active, private lending has become a hot topic of legal science and even the whole society .The rapid development of private lending fully shows its’ function to mobilize social idle capital, supply the flaws of the formal financial sector, and promote the development of small -medium-size enterprises. But our current civil law still exist many shortcomings in adjustment for folk lending, so that the private lending in social practice is very easy to cause disputes, can not play full parts of the positive role in private finance. Thus, this article start from the folk loan contract, summary and analysis folk loan contract -related civil theory, and flaws of our civil law regulation. In order to give an advice of my own. This paper include five parts:
The first part is the analysis of the fundamental problems of private loans. Mainly analyzes the meaning of private lending, the type of private lending, the difference between the private lending and illegal fund-raising and usury, the positive impact and negative impact of folk lending.
The second part is theoretical analysis of private lending. Mainly introduced the reason why folk lending legal relationship starts, and lending components of civil legal relationship. This part mainly analyze the reason why folk lending financial activities frequent appeared and folk lending subject, object and content. This part study folk lending legal relationship from theory and analyzed in detail.
The third part analysis flaws of our civil law in folk lending regulation. This part mainly analysis our "contract law", "general principles of the civil law", "general principles of the civil law views", "property law", "security law" and the judicial interpretations about folk lending of our current law. And summarizes the existing problems in our civil legal re-
gulation about folk lending.
The fourth part is about other countries and regions of the folk lending of civil law regulation. This part mainly introduces regulation status on folk lending of civil law in British, American, South Africa, Hong Kong and Taiwan, and according to their regions on folk lending legal regulation legal system, induces their merits in folk lending civil legal regulation, in order to enlightenment ours’. Thus laid foundation for draw lessons from foreign advanced legal system and to perfect the relevant legal system of our country.
The fifth part is the analysis and argumentation about perfection to our civil law on folk lending regulation problem, this is also the most important part of this article. This part is based on the research result of the above four parts, puts forward some concrete Suggestions of perfecting our country's informal lending civil legal regulation. This part borrow ideas from successful legislative experience in UK, South Africa, the United States, Hong Kong and Taiwan. And analysis our "contract law", "general principles of the civil law", "general principles of the civil law views", "property law", "security law" and judicial interpretation of folk lending, to definite object, purposes, legal forms, effect, rate of folk lending, and give some advice to perfect our legal systems. In addition, regulatory problems also involved in.

Key words: loan;  contract;  folk lending;  civil law regulation


目  录
摘 要 I
Abstract III
引 言 1
一、民间借贷的基本问题 7
(一)民间借贷的含义 7
1.广义的民间借贷 7
2.狭义的民间借贷 7
(二)民间借贷的特点 8
1.借贷主体的广泛性 8
2.借贷形式的多样性 8
3.借贷过程简单灵活 8
4.借贷行为的隐蔽性 9
5.借贷范围的地域性 9
(三)民间借贷的类型 9
1.按借贷主体划分 9
2.按借贷组织形式划分 9
3.按借贷借款用途划分 10
(?#27169;?#27665;间借贷与非法集资、高利贷的区别 10
1.民间借贷与非法集资的区别 10
2.民间借贷与高利贷的区别 12
(五)民间借贷的影响 13
1.积极影响 13
2.消极影响 14
二、民间借贷法律关系分析 15
(一)民间借贷法律关系产生的原因 15
1.当事人间的意思自治 15
2.社会经济结构的调整 15
3.社会资本的积累 15
(二)民间借贷法律关系的构成要素 16
1.主体 16
2.内容 17
3.客体 18
三、我国民间借贷民事法律规制的不足 19
(一)《合同法》关于民间借贷规定的不足 19
1.《合同法》相关规定 19
2.《合同法》规定存在的不足 20
(二)《民法通则》、《民法通则意见》关于民间借贷规定的不足 21
1.《民法通则》、《民法通则意见》相关规定 21
2.《民法通则》、《民法通则意见》规定存在的不足 22
(三)《物权法》、《担保法》规定在民间借贷实践中的不足 23
1.《物权法》、《担保法》相关规定 23
2.《物权法》、《担保法》规定在实践中的不足 24
(?#27169;?#27665;间借贷相关司法解释规定的不足 25
1.民间借贷相关司法解释的规定 25
2.民间借贷相关司法解释规定的不足 25
四、其他国家和地区民间借贷法律规制概况 28
(一)其他国家民间借贷法律规制概况 28
1.英国 28
2.美国 30
3.南非 31
(二)其他地区民间借贷法律规制概况 33
1.香港地区 33
2.台湾地区 34
(三)其他国家和地区民间借贷法律制度的启示 34
1.英国 34
2.美国 35
3.南非 36
4.香港和台湾地区 36
五、民间借贷法律规制的完善 38
(一)《合同法》民间借贷规定的完善 38
1.明确民间借贷合同的主体 38
2.明确规定民间借贷合同内容 39
3.完善民间借贷合同效力的规定 39
(二)《民法通则》、《民法通则意见?#20998;?#27665;间借贷规定的完善 40
1.民间借贷诉讼时效?#23454;?#20943;短 40
2.明确民间借贷的范围 41
(三)《物权法》、《担保法?#20998;?#27665;间借贷担保的完善 41
1.规范民间借贷担保的内容及订立程序 41
2.完善?#34892;?#20225;业民间借贷担保体系 42
3.健全民间借贷信用担保体系 43
4.完善融资性担保业的法律规制 44
(?#27169;?#27665;间借贷相关司法解释的完善 44
1.统一民间借贷利率计算的依据 44
2.统一民间借贷利率适用的时间点 45
3.?#23454;?#25918;松对民间借贷利率的限制 45
(五)完善民间借贷民事法律规制的其他建议 46
1.规定严格的借贷信息披露制度 46
2.确定借贷举证责任倒置原则 47
3.健全民间借贷的监管体系 47
结 语 49
致 谢 50
参考文献 51

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